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ATP - Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is the energy currency of life. ATP is a high-energy molecule found in every cell. Its job is to store and supply the cell with needed energy.

Chromophores – A group of atoms and electrons forming part of an organic molecule that causes it to be colored.

Joules - the SI unit of work or energy, equal to the work done by a force of one newton when its point of application moves one meter in the direction of action of the force, equivalent to one 3600th of a watt-hour.

Mitochondria – The rod-shaped organelles that can be considered the power generators of the cell, converting oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Nanometer (nm) - The abbreviation 'nm' stands for Nanometer - a unit of measurement that is one billionth of a meter long, (.000000001 (10^-9) of a meter). In the case of 650nm, we are referring to a visible section of the electromagnetic spectrum. In particular, it describes light that is deep red. In the visible light spectrum, the wavelength of red light ranges from 622 to 780 nanometers. Red light has the longest wavelength and the shortest frequency. NIR (near infrared light) has wavelengths between 700 and 1200nm and is not visible to the human eye.

Optical Window - Your skin blocks most light frequencies including ultraviolet, blue, green, and infrared. These light wavelengths are merely absorbed in the outer layers of skin. Only certain wavelengths of red light pass through the skin and into the joints and tissue. This is called the optical window and covers the light frequency range of 600nm-1000nm. Within this range there are specific light frequencies that have the greatest absorption within human cells and that is why Triumph uses both 660nm and 850nm LEDs. These belong to the therapeutic optical window. These wavelengths are able to significantly penetrate through the skin and into the tissue to cause healing.

Photobiomodulation - A form of light therapy that utilizes non-ionizing light sources, including lasers, light-emitting diodes, and/or broadband light, in the visible (400–700 nm) and near-infrared (700–1100 nm) electromagnetic spectrum.